Understanding the Basics of Industrial Effluent Treatment


Faced with Industrial Effluent Treatment increasingly strict regulations and ecological awareness, manufacturers are looking for effective and sustainable solutions to treat their effluents before their discharge into the natural environment. Indeed, untreated, they can contain different types of pollutants (hydrocarbons, salts, oils, solvents, etc.) with more or less dangerous toxicity, and thus present risks for the environment and health.

Chemical, agri-food, nuclear, paper industry… all of them emit pollutants into their wastewater. However, the diversity of the latter depending on the products manufactured, leads them to different treatments, with a varying degree of complexity. Veolia then offers its industrial effluent treatment solutions taking into account the specificity of each pollutant.

Specific Pollution Factors

Industrial Effluent Treatment

The significant contributions of contamination that are listed below have been classified according to the treatment methods that are applicable to them.

  • Physically separable insoluble elements with or without flocculation: fatty, floating materials (fats, aliphatic hydrocarbons, tars, organic oils, etc.).
  • Solid materials in suspension (sands, oxides, hydroxides, pigments, colloidal sulfur, latex, fibers, etc.).
  • Organic elements separable by adsorption: colorants, detergents, various macromolecular compounds, phenolated compounds.
  • Elements are separable by precipitation: toxic metals or not, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Be, Ti, Al, Pb, Hg, Cr, precipitable in a certain PH zone; sulfites, phosphates, sulfates, fluorides, by adding Ca 2+.
  • Elements that can precipitate in the form of insoluble iron salts or complexes: sulfides, phosphates, cyanides, sulfonamides.
  • Elements separable by degassing or stripping: H 2 S, NH 4, alcohols, phenols, and sulfides Industrial Effluent Treatment.
  • Elements that need an oxidation-reduction reaction: cyanides, hexavalent chromium, sulfides, chromium, nitrite.
  • Acids and bases: hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric, and hydrofluoric acid; various bases.
  • Elements that can be concentrated by ion exchange or by reverse osmosis: radionuclides such as iodine, Mo, Cs; salts of strong acids and bases; ionized organic compounds (ion exchange) or not (reverse osmosis).
  • Elements that are adapted to a biological treatment: all elements biodegradable by definition; for example, sugars, proteins, phenols. Biological treatments can also be applied, after acclimatization, to organic compounds such as formaldehyde, aniline, and certain detergents Industrial Effluent Treatment.

The following points should be remembered Industrial Effluent Treatment:

  • The relationship between COD and BOD in industrial waters is very different from that obtained in domestic waters. This relationship evolves in the various phases of the treatment; the final COD can reach, in some cases, up to more than 5 times the corresponding BOD value.
  • The presence of highly active toxins can mask the presence of biodegradable materials and distort the BOD measurement.
  • Notions of biological treatability of effluents.

Characterization of Industrial Effluent Treatment

For the proper definition of a wastewater treatment plant, it is necessary to have the following carefully established data:

  • Daily volumes;
  • Minimum and maximum hourly flows;
  • Composition of the supply water to the factory ;
  • Continuous, discontinuous manufactures;
  • Importance and periodicity of pollution peaks;
  • Possibility of separation of circuits;
  • Possibilities of local or partial treatments or recirculation;
  • Secondary contamination, even slight or occasional, may seriously affect the functioning of certain organs of the treatment equipment (glues, tars, fibers, oils, sands, etc.).

The process is as follows: the sludge is placed in an aeration basin with the wastewater from industry. To meet their energy needs, we inject them with O2 (oxygen). The species present in the sludge will then eliminate the pollutants from industrial effluents.

The next step is to filter the sludge from the water in a settling tank and discharge the water in the middle. Much of the sludge can be recycled in the same station following the same cycle or else treated. To go further, do not hesitate to consult our resources on the treatment and reuse of sludge.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here